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Migrations

Just like you use Git / SVN to manage changes in your source code, you can use migrations to keep track of changes to database. With migrations you can transfer your existing database into another state and vice versa: Those state transitions are saved in migration files, which describe the way how to get to the new state and how to revert the changes in order to get back to the old state.

You will need Sequelize CLI. The CLI ships support for migrations and project bootstrapping.

The CLI

Installing CLI

Lets start with installing CLI, you can find instructions here. Most preferred way is installing locally like this

$ npm install --save sequelize-cli

Bootstrapping

To create an empty project you will need to execute init command

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize init

This will create following folders

  • config, contains config file, which tells CLI how to connect with database
  • models, contains all models for your project
  • migrations, contains all migration files
  • seeders, contains all seed files

Configuration

Before continuing further we will need to tell CLI how to connect to database. To do that lets open default config file config/config.json. It looks something like this

{
  development: {
    username: 'root',
    password: null,
    database: 'database_development',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  test: {
    username: 'root',
    password: null,
    database: 'database_test',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  production: {
    username: process.env.PROD_DB_USERNAME,
    password: process.env.PROD_DB_PASSWORD,
    database: process.env.PROD_DB_NAME,
    host: process.env.PROD_DB_HOSTNAME,
    dialect: 'mysql'
  }
}

Now edit this file and set correct database credentials and dialect.

Note: If your database doesn't exists yet, you can just call db:create command. With proper access it will create that database for you.

Creating first Model (and Migration)

Once you have properly configured CLI config file you are ready to create you first migration. Its as simple as executing a simple command.

We will use model:generate command. This command requires two options

  • name, Name of the model
  • attributes, List of model attributes

Lets create a model named User

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize model:generate --name User --attributes firstName:string,lastName:string,email:string

This will do following

  • Create a model file user in models folder
  • Create a migration file with name like XXXXXXXXXXXXXX-create-user.js in migrations folder

Note: Sequelize will only use Model files, it's the table representation. On other hand migration file is a change in that model or more specifically that table, used by CLI. Treat migrations like a commit or a log for some change in database.

Running Migrations

Now till this step CLI haven't inserted anything into database. We have just created required model and migration files for our first model User. Now to actually create that table in database you need to run db:migrate command.

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:migrate

This command will execute these steps

  • Will ensure a table called SequelizeMeta in database. This table is used to record which migration have ran on current database
  • Start looking for any migration files which haven't ran yet. This is possible by checking SequelizeMeta table. In this case it will run XXXXXXXXXXXXXX-create-user.js migration, which we created in last step.
  • Creates a table called Users with all columns as specified in its migration file.

Undoing Migrations

Now our table has been created and saved in database. With migration you can revert to old state by just running a command.

You can use db:migrate:undo, this command will revert most recent migration.

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:migrate:undo

You can revert back to initial state by undoing all migrations with db:migrate:undo:all command. You can also revert back to a specific migration by passing its name in --to option.

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:migrate:undo:all --to XXXXXXXXXXXXXX-create-posts.js

Creating First Seed

Suppose we want to insert some data into few tables by default. If we follow up on previous example we can consider creating a demo user for User table.

To manage all data migrations you can use seeders. Seed files are some change in data that can be used to populate database table with sample data or test data.

Lets create a seed file which will add a demo user to our User table.

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize seed:generate --name demo-user

This command will create a seed file in seeders folder. File name will look something like XXXXXXXXXXXXXX-demo-user.js, It follows same up / down semantics like migration files.

Now we should edit this file to insert demo user to User table.

'use strict';

module.exports = {
  up: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    return queryInterface.bulkInsert('Users', [{
        firstName: 'John',
        lastName: 'Doe',
        email: 'demo@demo.com'
      }], {});
  },

  down: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    return queryInterface.bulkDelete('Users', null, {});
  }
};

Running Seeds

In last step you have create a seed file. Its still not committed to database. To do that we need to run a simple command.

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:seed:all

This will execute that seed file and you will have a demo user inserted into User table.

Note: Seeders execution is not stored anywhere unlike migration which use SequelizeMeta table. If you wish to override this please read Storage section

Undoing Seeds

Seeders if they are using any storage can be undo. There are two commands available for that

If you wish to undo most recent seed

node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:seed:undo

If you wish to undo all seeds

node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:seed:undo:all

Advance Topics

Migration Skeleton

The following skeleton shows a typical migration file.

module.exports = {
  up: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    // logic for transforming into the new state
  },

  down: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    // logic for reverting the changes
  }
}

The passed queryInterface object can be used to modify the database. The Sequelize object stores the available data types such as STRING or INTEGER. Function up or down should return a Promise. Lets look at an example

module.exports = {
  up: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    return queryInterface.createTable('Person', {
        name: Sequelize.STRING,
        isBetaMember: {
          type: Sequelize.BOOLEAN,
          defaultValue: false,
          allowNull: false
        }
      });
  },
  down: (queryInterface, Sequelize) => {
    return queryInterface.dropTable('Person');
  }
}

The .sequelizerc File

This is a special configuration file. It let you specify various options that you would usually pass as arguments to CLI. Some scenarios where you can use it.

  • You want to override default path to migrations, models, seeders or config folder.
  • You want to rename config.json to something else like database.json

And a whole lot more. Let see how you can use this file for custom configuration.

For starters lets create an empty file in root directory of your project.

$ touch .sequelizerc

Now lets work with an example config.

const path = require('path');

module.exports = {
  'config': path.resolve('config', 'database.json'),
  'models-path': path.resolve('db', 'models'),
  'seeders-path': path.resolve('db', 'seeders'),
  'migrations-path': path.resolve('db', 'migrations')
}

With this config you are telling CLI to

  • Use config/database.json file for config settings
  • Use db/models as models folder
  • Use db/seeders as seeders folder
  • Use db/migrations as migrations folder

Dynamic Configuration

Configuration file is by default a JSON file called config.json. But sometimes you want to execute some code or access environment variables which is not possible in JSON files.

Sequelize CLI can read from both JSON and JS files. This can be setup with .sequelizerc file. Let see how

First you need to create a .sequelizerc file in root folder of your project. This file should override config path to a JS file. Like this

const path = require('path');

module.exports = {
  'config': path.resolve('config', 'config.js')
}

Now Sequelize CLI will load config/config.js for getting configuration options. Since this is a JS file you can have any code executed and export final dynamic configuration file.

An example of config/config.js file

const fs = require('fs');

module.exports = {
  development: {
    username: 'database_dev',
    password: 'database_dev',
    database: 'database_dev',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  test: {
    username: 'database_test',
    password: null,
    database: 'database_test',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  production: {
    username: process.env.DB_USERNAME,
    password: process.env.DB_PASSWORD,
    database: process.env.DB_NAME,
    host: process.env.DB_HOSTNAME,
    dialect: 'mysql',
    dialectOptions: {
      ssl: {
        ca: fs.readFileSync(__dirname + '/mysql-ca-master.crt')
      }
    }
  }
};

Using Environment Variables

With CLI you can directly access the environment variables inside the config/config.js. You can use .sequelizerc to tell CLI to use config/config.js for configuration. This is explained in last section.

Then you can just expose file with proper environment variables.

module.exports = {
  development: {
    username: 'database_dev',
    password: 'database_dev',
    database: 'database_dev',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  test: {
    username: process.env.CI_DB_USERNAME,
    password: process.env.CI_DB_PASSWORD,
    database: process.env.CI_DB_NAME,
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  production: {
    username: process.env.PROD_DB_USERNAME,
    password: process.env.PROD_DB_PASSWORD,
    database: process.env.PROD_DB_NAME,
    host: process.env.PROD_DB_HOSTNAME,
    dialect: 'mysql'
  }

Specifying Dialect Options

Sometime you want to specify a dialectOption, if it's a general config you can just add it in config/config.json. Sometime you want to execute some code to get dialectOptions, you should use dynamic config file for those cases.

{
    "production": {
        "dialect":"mysql",
        "dialectOptions": {
            "bigNumberStrings": true
        }
    }
}

Production Usages

Some tips around using CLI and migration setup in production environment.

1) Use environment variables for config settings. This is better achieved with dynamic configuration. A sample production safe configuration may look like.

const fs = require('fs');

module.exports = {
  development: {
    username: 'database_dev',
    password: 'database_dev',
    database: 'database_dev',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  test: {
    username: 'database_test',
    password: null,
    database: 'database_test',
    host: '127.0.0.1',
    dialect: 'mysql'
  },
  production: {
    username: process.env.DB_USERNAME,
    password: process.env.DB_PASSWORD,
    database: process.env.DB_NAME,
    host: process.env.DB_HOSTNAME,
    dialect: 'mysql',
    dialectOptions: {
      ssl: {
        ca: fs.readFileSync(__dirname + '/mysql-ca-master.crt')
      }
    }
  }
};

Our goal is to use environment variables for various database secrets and not accidentally checkout them to source control.

Storage

There are three types of storage that you can use: sequelize, json, and none.

  • sequelize : stores migrations and seeds in a table on the sequelize database
  • json : stores migrations and seeds on a json file
  • none : does not store any migration/seed

Migration Storage

By default the CLI will create a table in your database called SequelizeMeta containing an entry for each executed migration. To change this behavior, there are three options you can add to the configuration file. Using migrationStorage, you can choose the type of storage to be used for migrations. If you choose json, you can specify the path of the file using migrationStoragePath or the CLI will write to the file sequelize-meta.json. If you want to keep the information in the database, using sequelize, but want to use a different table, you can change the table name using migrationStorageTableName.

{
  "development": {
    "username": "root",
    "password": null,
    "database": "database_development",
    "host": "127.0.0.1",
    "dialect": "mysql",

    // Use a different storage type. Default: sequelize
    "migrationStorage": "json",

    // Use a different file name. Default: sequelize-meta.json
    "migrationStoragePath": "sequelizeMeta.json",

    // Use a different table name. Default: SequelizeMeta
    "migrationStorageTableName": "sequelize_meta"
  }
}

Note: The none storage is not recommended as a migration storage. If you decide to use it, be aware of the implications of having no record of what migrations did or didn't run.

Seed Storage

By default the CLI will not save any seed that is executed. If you choose to change this behavior (!), you can use seederStorage in the configuration file to change the storage type. If you choose json, you can specify the path of the file using seederStoragePath or the CLI will write to the file sequelize-data.json. If you want to keep the information in the database, using sequelize, you can specify the table name using seederStorageTableName, or it will default to SequelizeData.

{
  "development": {
    "username": "root",
    "password": null,
    "database": "database_development",
    "host": "127.0.0.1",
    "dialect": "mysql",
    // Use a different storage. Default: none
    "seederStorage": "json",
    // Use a different file name. Default: sequelize-data.json
    "seederStoragePath": "sequelizeData.json",
    // Use a different table name. Default: SequelizeData
    "seederStorageTableName": "sequelize_data"
  }
}

Configuration Connection String

As an alternative to the --config option with configuration files defining your database, you can use the --url option to pass in a connection string. For example:

$ node_modules/.bin/sequelize db:migrate --url 'mysql://root:password@mysql_host.com/database_name'

Connecting over SSL

Ensure ssl is specified in both dialectOptions and in the base config.

{
    "production": {
        "dialect":"postgres",
        "ssl": true,
        "dialectOptions": {
            "ssl": true
        }
    }
}

Programmatic use

Sequelize has a sister library for programmatically handling execution and logging of migration tasks.

Query Interface

Using queryInterface object described before you can change database schema. To see full list of public methods it supports check QueryInterface API